The mucosal immune system is the largest component of the entire immune system, providing protection at the main sites of infectious threat. Vaccines offer the best protection against respiratory infections like coronaviruses, which initially infect the upper respiratory tract, when they engage both mucosal and systemic immune responses.
The primary effect of intramuscular vaccines delivered by needle is to induce only systemic immunity. iosBio’s thermally stable oral vaccine platform targets mucosal surfaces, such as the epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract or under the tongue, generating both mucosal and systemic immune responses.
- Gastrointestinal administration does not induce anti-vector immunity, enabling booster doses using the same viral vector.
- The gastrointestinal tract has a total surface area of around 250 m², meaning huge potential for antigen production in comparison with the intramuscular bolus of an injection.
- Secretory Immunoglobulin A (IgA) provides protection at mucosal surfaces against pathogens, including intracellular neutralization of viruses.
- The presentation of antigens via the dendritic cells resident in Peyer’s patches induces IgA class switching and mucosal homing immune responses.