Mucosal and systemic immunity

The mucosal immune system is the largest component of the entire immune system, providing protection at the main sites of infectious threat. Vaccines offer the best protection against respiratory infections like coronaviruses, which initially infect the upper respiratory tract, when they engage both mucosal and systemic immune responses. 

The primary effect of intramuscular vaccines delivered by needle is to induce only systemic immunity. iosBio’s thermally stable oral vaccine platform targets mucosal surfaces, such as the epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract or under the tongue, generating both mucosal and systemic immune responses.

  • Gastrointestinal administration does not induce anti-vector immunity, enabling booster doses using the same viral vector.
  • The gastrointestinal tract has a total surface area of around 250 m², meaning huge potential for antigen production in comparison with the intramuscular bolus of an injection.
  • Secretory Immunoglobulin A (IgA) provides protection at mucosal surfaces against pathogens, including intracellular neutralization of viruses.
  • The presentation of antigens via the dendritic cells resident in Peyer’s patches induces IgA class switching and mucosal homing immune responses.


The OraPro platform enables administration in the following ways:

OraPro Capsule

For the OraPro Capsule, the powder is encased in a capsule with an enteric coating that prevents it being dissolved by the acid in the stomach. When the capsule moves into the small intestine, the pH changes from acid to alkali and the enteric coating dissolves, releasing the viral vector to the mucosal cells of the GI tract.

Advantages of this route of administration

An oral vaccine is delivered via the same route of entry as the virus, guaranteeing the vaccine cargo is delivered directly to the target location, where it generates both a mucosal and systemic immune response.


No need to schedule appointments or wait for availability at healthcare clinics – all oral vaccine doses could simply be posted directly to the patient’s door for immediate self-administration.


No need for the patient to come into contact with healthcare staff or other patients in order to get vaccinated, reducing the spread of the virus. The elderly and disabled are spared the potential challenges of travelling to a clinic.


With no need for clinics and healthcare professionals to administer the vaccines, and no cold chain requirements resulting in simpler modes of storage and distribution the cost savings are significant.


OraPro is delivered to the body via the same route as an infection, ensuring that the vaccine cargo goes directly to the target cells where it generates both a mucosal and systemic immune response.

What are viral vectors?




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The team of doctors and scientists at iosBio believe that the next great leap forward in immunization will be oral delivery

Enabling the fastest and most cost-effective deployment of vaccines the world has ever seen. This is not just a huge leap forward from a humanitarian perspective, oral vaccine technology also represents a significant commercial opportunity.

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